Thursday, August 16, 2007

ls manual

LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)

ls - list directory contents

ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

with -l, print the author of each file

-b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

use SIZE-byte blocks

-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime

-C list entries by columns

control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN
may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’

-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not derefer‐
ence symbolic links

-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

likewise, except do not append ‘*’

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l --time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

-G, --no-group
like -l, but do not list group

-h, --human-readable
with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link that points to a direc‐

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
by -a or -A)

--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify

-i, --inode
with -l, print the index number of each file

-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k like --block-size=1K

-l use a long listing format

-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa‐
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters spe‐

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is
‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, c, escape

-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, --size
with -l, print size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size

extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c,
time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime,
access, use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if

with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’; if FORMAT
is FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-’,
STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t sort by modification time

-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access
time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v sort by version

-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1 list one file per line

SELinux options:

Display security context. Enable -l. Lines will probably be
too wide for most displays.

-Z, --context
Display security context so it fits on most displays. Displays
only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

Display only security context and file name.

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol‐
lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
P, E, Z, Y.

By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is
equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the
optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With
--color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is con‐
nected to a terminal (tty). The environment variable LS_COLORS can
influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

Report bugs to .

Copyright © 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License
. There is NO WARRANTY, to the
extent permitted by law.

The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com‐

info ls

should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.93 November 2005 LS(1)